Dr. Yogesh Kumar Kosariya, 
Guest Assistant Professor (Agricultural Engineering),
College of Agriculture and Research Station, Raigarh, (C.G.)

The creation of intelligent agricultural computers and agricultural robots that can perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence is known as artificial intelligence (AI). In all aspects of industry, AI is becoming increasingly important. It is having an impact. One of the oldest and most important occupations in the world is agriculture and farming. This has a significant impact on the economy. Due to the increasing population of the world, land, water, and other resources are getting exhausted, it is becoming impossible to maintain the demand-supply cycle, finally we must incorporate advanced techniques in agriculture;

Agricultural robots - 
Agricultural robots are machines that can perform many agricultural tasks based on algorithms programmed by humans, such as sowing seeds, spraying pesticides, and harvesting crops, etc. Some of these robots are used to complete tasks. They also work closely with human farmers for this. Agricultural robots come in many sizes, these machines also differ in size, function, cost, and other features. Some are bigger than others because they must carry more weight. Some are even equipped with GPS technology to avoid obstacles during the harvesting or seeding process.

Future of AI in Agriculture – 
Indian agriculture is dominated and characterized by small farmers, where farmers are completely dependent on natural resources. In today's era, machinery, AI, and robotics play a very important role in every sector including agriculture. The potential of AI in agriculture is particularly exciting, from improving crop yields to reducing the need for seeding, pruning, spraying and pesticides, and AI has the potential to transform the entire way we grow crops. Soon, AI-enabled precision farming will become more common. But in present India, it may take some time for these new ideas to be fully realized. AI will have a big impact on agriculture in the coming years, improving efficiency and sustainability. However, there are still many challenges such as the need for better data collection methods, more powerful computing resources, and better mathematical algorithms before AI can be widely adopted in agriculture.

Applications of artificial intelligence in agriculture-

Weather Forecasting – 
Artificial intelligence has the potential to be a very powerful tool for highly accurate weather forecasting. Artificial intelligence's ability to assess multiple datasets allows it to notice real-time data, gather insights and trends, and learn from past contexts to make accurate predictions. Farmers can check and schedule seed sowing time with the help of weather forecast.

Real-time Soil and Crop Monitoring - 
One of the key elements affecting the growth and well-being of any plant is soil. The quality of the crop is affected by the nutrient content of the soil. As a result of deforestation, soil quality gradually decreases, making it increasingly challenging for farmers to determine which soil is ideal for which crop.

Precision agriculture- 
Applications that give precise directions to farmers on water management, crop rotation, timely harvesting, pest attacks, etc. have become possible using artificial intelligence in agriculture. We can forecast the weather, control nutrition, and assess crop sustainability using machine-learning algorithms and images taken by satellites and drones. Precision farming is a method that uses the right amount of data input to achieve the highest quality and quantity. India's Tamil Nadu based Garuda Aerospace Company is famous for products of drone precision spraying technology, with two batteries which are 16000mAh, tank capacity 8-10 litres, GPS, receiver, transmitter, with a total cost of 5-7 lakhs and Whose battery takes only 20-25 minutes to fully charge, which completes about one acre of land in one treatment, that too in just 10 minutes.

Livestock management- 
Using applications powered by artificial intelligence technology has helped farmers to manage their cattle effectively and is likely to get better in the future. Robotics, drones, and intelligent monitoring systems are some of the applications of AI technology that have transformed farming. In addition, tools developed to monitor the health of farm animals and identify diseases and injuries help farmers save time and labour.

Better decision making – 
AI can help farmers make better decisions by providing timely data-driven insights and suggestions on crop related issues. It can assist the farmer-machine-man to keep pace with the changing conditions of the environment and make wise choices on planting, harvesting and other important operations. If you want to accelerate the growth of your company and keep up with the competition, you can also invest in AI Application Development Services.

In crop harvesting -
Harvesting is a physically demanding and highly repetitive task, the type of labour that is often most effectively targeted in the robot revolution. Selecting crops also requires human dexterity and a delicate touch. Many fruits burn easily in the heat and leafy vegetables bruise easily. Most of the robots available now are not advanced enough to handle that level of precision. But some robot makers, such as Agri-Tech, are working tirelessly to overcome that obstacle.

Weeding and mowing - 
Mowing is a time-consuming task for large farmers. That is why weed-management and mowing robots—which incorporate advanced AI technology—are an attractive option. Scythe Robotics produces automated electric mowers, the company's M-52 mower is equipped with a dozen sensors to enable 360-degree perception, as well as the ability to navigate the machine around obstacles. There is also advanced artificial intelligence to allow that. Neo-Technologies has developed three different robots to help farmers do everything from hoeing fields to weeding vegetable fields and vineyards. App-Harvest is an indoor farm company that uses AI and robotics as well as rainwater harvesting and precision farming to reduce water consumption and increase crop yields. It also allows them to accurately determine how much pesticide the crops need.

In sowing crops – 
For farmers who have several acres of space to grow crops, sowing seeds by hand is not an ideal solution. This would waste a lot of time and money, which is why planting seeds with agricultural robots is a popular option for farmers today. Some alien agricultural robots work closely with humans to plant seeds and some can be programmed to use GPS technology to plant seeds autonomously. Roboweeder is an example.

Watering the plants – 
Watering the plants is a task that many farmers struggle with as it takes a lot of time and resources. Some crops require precise amounts of water every day, so using robots to do the job is an efficient option. Many agro-robots use soil moisture sensors to determine where and when plants need water.

Challenges faced in AI in agriculture – 
Farmers should know that artificial intelligence (AI) is essentially a more advanced form of earlier technology that is used to analyse, collect, and monitor field data. AI needs appropriate technical infrastructure to work. However, it is important to understand that like a tractor, AI cannot simply be bought and turned on. It consists of a collection of technologies that are set up to work automatically. 'High-tech farming' is no contradiction, with apps controlling irrigation, GPS systems steering tractors and RFID-chip means radio-frequency identification tags monitoring livestock and agricultural robots are key to that technological sustainability. Play a role. In some countries, such as Israel, agricultural robots pick apples, gather strawberries, chop lettuce and pull weeds.

Benefits of Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture – 
In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has become a powerful tool in agriculture, providing a variety of benefits to farmers and the agriculture sector. Some of the main benefits of implementing AI in agriculture are:

1. The first advantage of using agricultural robots for farming is to reduce the labour cost. Farms are also expensive to operate, and the prices of crops are subject to the market.

2. The use of agricultural robots can help farmers reduce their expenses by reducing their dependence on human labour.

3. If robots are used in farming work, then errors will also be less and less time will be wasted if they will sow and reap crops automatically.

4. They increase crop yields Using robots for agricultural work can help farmers get better yields from their crops, which is good for business.

5. Farmers want every seed sown by them to grow into a full-grown plant so that they can get as much production as possible. Optimizing the process is important for this.

6. Robots help reduce losses and increase crop yields, which means more profits for the farm owner. They require less space Another advantage of using robots for agricultural work is that they take up less space than traditional farming equipment.

7. This is good news for farmers who have small plots of land to work and do not want to worry about moving large pieces of equipment around. It is important to note that many agricultural robots are multi-functional and can accomplish multiple tasks simultaneously.

8. Artificial Intelligence (AI) helps farmers use less water, fertilizers, and pesticides by offering precise, targeted applications based on current data.