Dr. Omesh Thakur, Assistant Professor,
College of Agriculture and Research Station Fingeshwar, Gariyabandh

Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without need of soil or an aggregate media. Aeroponic comes from the Latin words "aero" (air) and "ponic" (labour) (work). This is an alternate technique for growing plants without soil by feeding them on nutrient solutions.

When compared to traditional soil-based cultivation methods, aeroponics is thought to be a superior way of agriculture.This approach promotes rapid plant growth while also increasing yields and minimizes or eliminating the need for herbicides and insecticides. This innovative method produces faster development, healthier plants, and higher harvests while utilizing fewer resources.This technique enables rapid growth of plants, in addition to contributing for higher yields and or eliminates the need for herbicides and pesticides.

History of aeroponics
In 1942, W. Carter conducted pioneering research on air culture growing and described a method for growing plants in water vapor to facilitate root examination. In 1944, L.J. Klotz made an important discovery by misting citrus plants, which facilitated his research on diseases affecting citrus and avocado roots. In 1952, G.F. Trowel successfully grew apple trees using a spray culture technique. The term aeroponics was originally coined by the Dutch biologist, Frits Warmolt Went in 1957.The aeroponics apparatus forcommercial use was first manufactured by R J Stoner’s company GTi in 1983 and marketed as “Genesis rooting system”. R J Stoner isconsidered as “father of americanaeroponics technology”.Since 2006, aeroponics has been widely used in agriculture worldwide.

The main principle of aeroponics is to grow plants in a closed or semi-closed environment by spraying the plant's roots with a nutrient-rich solution. Ideally, the environment should be devoid of pests and illnesses so that the plants can grow healthier and faster than plants produced in soil medium. However, because most aeroponic settings are not properly closed, pests and illness may still pose a concern. Because aeroponics is conducted in air mixed with micro-droplets of water, almost any plant can develop to maturity due to an abundance of oxygen, water, and nutrients.

Aeroponics System
In this aeroponics system, there are primarily two live components:
Roots: The architecture of the plant that supports it neatly divides the roots underneath.
Canopy: The canopy refers to the leaves and crown that are frequently higher than the plant's structural supports.

In order to meet this requirement, aeroponics relies on hydroponics. This is because there is a requirement to have a backup system for supplying the necessary nutrients for the plants in the event that the aeroponics system fails. A high-pressure (80 psi) diaphragm pump is used in high-pressure aeroponics to supply nutrients to the roots through 20-50 mm mist heads.

Components of the Aeroponic system:
  • A reservoir/container to hold the aeroponic nutrient solution.
  • Nutrient pump.
  • Mist nozzles.
  • Tubing to dispense water from the nutrient pump to the mister heads in the growingchamber.
  • Grow Baskets or pots to suspend plants.
  • Enclosed growing chamber for the root zone.
  • Watertight containers for the growing chamber where the plant’s root systems will behanged.
  • Timer (preferably a cycle timer) to turn on and off the nutrient pump.

Nutrients used in aeroponics system
Air and water include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Water contains a range of components, including primary nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as well as secondary nutrients such as calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, as well as micronutrients such as iron, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, boron, copper, cobalt, and chlorine. The ideal pH for plant growth is 5.8 to 6.3. In aeroponic system where water and nutrients are recycled, it is important to measure the acid/base or pH measurement to allow plants to absorb nutrients. Aeroponic using spray to nourish roots use much less liquid resulting in easier management of nutrient concentration with greater pH stability.

Suitable crops for hydroponics






Potato ,lettuce , yam ,Broccoli, Cabbage, Carrots, Cauliflower



strawberries, blueberries, raspberries


Ornamental plants

croton, chrysanthemum

Advantages/pros/benefits of aeroponics:
  • Year-round production
  • Produces higher quality food in a controlled environment condition.
  • Reduced the chances of soil-borne pathogen
  • Delivers nutrients directly to the plant roots.
  • Higher density crops optimizes output.
  • Reduces the labour cost.
  • Efficient use of water & nutrients,
  • More accurate control over the supply of water, nutrients,pH,root temperature etc.

Disadvantages of aeroponics:
  • More expensive for long scale production.
  • Technical knowledge required.
  • Requires high standard of management.

Aeroponics cultivation permits plants and crops to thrive without the usage of pesticides, making them disease-free. Because the aeroponic system is very comparable to nature's environmental circumstances, the crops will grow in a natural and healthy manner. Itis the practice of growing plants in air with micro-droplets of water. Almost any plant can grow to maturity in air with an abundant supply of carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients. It helps conserve water, land and nutrients, therefore the aeroponics system is the way of the future, making crop cultivation easier.