Ms. Sarita 1, Eeshwar Sahu 2 and Preeti Sahu 3
Department of Agriculture Extension 1, Department of Fruit Science 2 and Department of Agronomy 3 College of Agriculture Raipur-492012 (C.G) India.
*Presenting author.

Botanical name – Iris sp.
Family – Iridaceae
Origin- central Europe

The tall, delightful iris, named after the Greek goddess who rode rainbows, comes in numerous enchanting tones. In spite of its heavenly causes, this June blossomed is tough, dependable, and simple to develop. Become familiar with about pl There are nearly 300 species in the variety Iris. The most natural irises are the tall (in any event 28 inches) unshaven irises (Iris germanica). These particular six-petaled blossoms have three external hanging petals (called "falls") and three inward upstanding petals (called "principles"). Irises might be a "hairy" type or peaked ("clean-shaven"). Unshaven iris is alleged on the grounds that they have delicate hairs along with the focal point of the falls. In the peaked iris, the hairs structure a brush or edge.
    Most irises bloom in late spring. A few—generally unshaven mixtures are remontant, blossoming again later in the mid-year. Irises draw in butterflies and hummingbirds and make stunning cut blossoms. For iris associates in the nursery, look to roses, peonies, and lilies. anting, developing, and really focusing on iris blossoms.

Irises need full sun in any event a large portion of the day. A few assortments will endure part shade, for example, Siberian irises and Pacific Coast locals (Iris innominata, Iris tenax, Iris macrosiphon and Iris douglasiana). Numerous irises will fill in absolute shade, however they in all probability will not blossom.

Blossom Time
Most of irises will sprout in spring or summer. Bantam assortments will in general sprout prior in spring, with middle sizes blossoming later spring, and taller unshaven assortments sprouting pre-summer and summer. Reblooming assortments will deliver blossoms once in summer and again in fall.

There is an incredibly wide assortment of tones, going from white to practically dark; albeit generally basic in shades of lavender, purple, white, and yellow.

Iris is known to be poisonous to pets, with the bulb being the most harmful part. See more normal Poisonous Plants for Dogs and Cats.

Iris flower meanings
This beautiful bloom traces a heritage through Greek mythology. In Greek, the name “Iris” translates as “rainbow,” which is one iris definition. There’s another Greek word, “eiris,” which means “messenger,” which gave rise to another iris flower meaning having to do with words.
    Most folks assume that the iris definition of rainbow refers to the many colors this flower comes in, but the root of the meaning traces to Greek mythology. There was a Greek goddess named Iris who delivered messages for the gods and from the Underworld. She would travel along rainbows as she moved between heaven and earth, which explains the iris definition rainbow.

Plant irises in late summer to early fall, when night-time temperatures remain between 40 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit or above. This gives them plenty of time to get established before the coming winter. The tall bearded iris varieties are best planted closer to fall because they go dormant in early to mid-summer. If you receive bare rhizomes or irises in a container at some point earlier in the year, go ahead and plant them as soon as convenient. It’s better to get them in the ground rather than wait until the ideal time.

How to plant irises
  • For bare-root irises, plant the rhizome horizontally with the top exposed. In climates with hot summers, plant the rhizome just below the soil surface.
  • Plant rhizomes singly or in groups of three, 1 to 2 feet apart, depending on the size.
  • Dig a shallow hole 10 inches in diameter and 4 inches deep. Make a ridge of soil down the middle and place the rhizome on the ridge, spreading roots down both sides. Fill the hole with soil and firm it gently, leaving part of the rhizome and the foliage uncovered.

Use of iris flowers
Irises are sometimes useful as well as attractive. The rhizomes of some species are known as iris roots. These are used commercially to produce a pleasant fragrance for perfumes and for items such as potpourris and natural toothpastes. Orris root is also used to flavour beverages and food.

  • Fertilize in late-winter with generally useful manure scratched in around the plants. Abstain from applying high-nitrogen manures to the surface or recklessly mulching with natural matter, which may empower rhizome decay. Reblooming Irises perform best whenever treated again after the main rush of blooming is done.
  • Do not overwater irises; an excess of dampness in the dirt can cause the rhizomes (roots) to spoil. Water reliably and profoundly, particularly during summer dry spell.
  • Keep rhizomes uncovered. In contrast to bulbs, which flourish profound underground, iris rhizomes need a touch of sun and air to dry them out. On the off chance that they're covered with soil or swarmed by different plants, they'll decay. Irises may profit by shallow mulching in the spring.
  • Taller irises may require marking or they will fall over.
  • Watch for iris drills in the foliage (dim vertical lines that may seem watery appear in the leaves). See bother tips underneath.
  • Deadhead (eliminate spent sprouts) reliably; Bearded Irises will blossom successively on buds dispersed along the stems.
  • After sprouting is done, chopped blossom stems down at their base.
  • But don't manage iris leaves after they have got done with blossoming. Leaves carry on photosynthesis for the following year's development. Cut off earthy colored tips—and slice the blooming tail down to the rhizome to debilitate decay.
  • After hard ice in the fall, cut foliage back hard, eliminate any foliage that seems spotted or yellowed and discard all flotsam and jetsam in the junk.
  • If iris foliage is hit with hefty ice, eliminate and annihilate it to kill drill eggs. See your neighbourhood ice dates.
  • For winter insurance, cover the rhizomes with an inch or two of sand finished off with a light layer of evergreen branches, applied after the ground freezes and eliminated when the Forsythias blossom the accompanying spring.
  • In the late-winter, eliminate winter mulch and any old foliage to take into consideration new, new development and forestall Iris drills.

The tall bearded iris varieties come in flamboyant colours which lively up the June garden. They are June bloomers and generally planted only in the fall.


Description in varieties

Bearded iris

.I. germanica

Iris varieties include the spring favourite, bearded iris. These showy perennials open brightly tinted flowers from mid-spring to early summer, depending on the hybrids you plant. Bearded iris are usually hardy in Zones 3 to 9 and include types of iris that are dwarf, knee-high and full size (reaching 40 inches tall).

Siberian Irises

I. sibirica

Siberian iris is a tough perennial type of iris that brings exquisite beauty to late spring and early summer garden. Blossoms unfurl to reveal purple and blue iris flowers; Plants are hardy in Zones 3 to 9 and form clumps of grassy leaves that add a fine texture to perennial garden designs.

Japanese Iris

I. ensata

If you’re looking for types of iris that can grow in standing water, check out Japanese iris. This exotic, elegant bloomer tolerates up to 6 inches of standing water—but only during the growing season. In winter, this beauty needs to be in drier conditions. Japanese iris open flowers in a wide variety of hues, but the white and blue iris varieties are some of the more popular ones.

African iris

Dietes bicolor

African iris which is a drought-tolerant beauty that’s hardy in Zones 8 to 11. The flowers on this perennial contain traditional features of other iris varieties, although blossoms are somewhat flattened and delicate. They open to reveal yellow petals with purple splotches and resemble butterflies floating above leaves.

Dwarf iris

I. danfordiae

Dwarf iris and. This species of dwarf iris opens bright canary yellow blooms in early spring on tiny plants that top out at 4 to 6 inches tall. This yellow iris grows from a bulb and multiplies to form small clumps.

Yellow flag iris

I. pseudacorus

Yellow flag iris grows from a fleshy rhizome and reaches 3 to 5 feet high. The yellow iris blooms appear in late spring to early summer. This is a moisture-loving iris that colonizes along marshy areas. It’s been listed as invasive in some part of the Northeast, Minnesota, California and the Pacific Northwest.

Dutch Iris

(I. xiphium)

This iris has beardless blooms in a rainbow of hues. Many gardeners choose which flower hue they want and plant those hybrids specifically. It flowers in spring and is hardy in Zones 5 to 9, although gardeners in Zone 5 should mulch bulbs after the ground freezes in fall.

There are 2 main groups of irises: rhizomatous and bulbous. The bulbous irises bloom in late spring, while the rhizomatous irises bloom during summer.

Rhizomatous irises
Grown from rhizomes (a type of bulb) and can be further divided into 3 categories:
  • Bearded: Bearded irises are the most widely grown and get their name from the prominent ‘beard’ of white or colour hairs in the centre of each fall (outer surrounding petals). Many varieties will produce multiple flowers per stem and are available in a wide range of colours.
  • Beardless: Beardless irises include the Siberian, Japanese, Pacific Coast and Louisiana types, and all have smooth falls. Siberian irises are known to be highly adaptable and a good choice for low maintenance mixed borders. Japanese and Louisiana varieties are better suited for moist to wet soils, while the Pacific Coast varieties are best in milder climates with winter rain and drier summers.
  • Crested: Crested irises do well in full sun or partial shade areas in moist, humus-rich soil.

Bulbous irises
This group includes the Dutch hybrids and the smaller reticulated or dwarf irises. They all shed their leaves after the blooming season and go into a dormant phase over summer. Dutch hybrids tend to bloom earlier than the tall bearded rhizomatous varieties and are the well-known variety featured in florist’s spring bouquets. Reticulated irises are well-suited for growing in groups, but should be divided every two to three years to prevent overcrowding. They are also good for rock gardens and forcing in pots.

Cut back the flowering stalks after flowering, but leave the foliage intact so it can continue to gather and store nutrients and energy to be stored for the following season. Trim leaves off at ground level after they turn yellow in fall; this will reduce the possibility of overwintering diseases or pests.

Dividing Iris Rhizomes
Rhizomatous types need to be divided every 3-5 years, typically soon after bloom time. A reduction in blooming or rhizomes being pushed up out of the soil can be signs that it’s time to dig them up and divide. If this is a dividing year, don’t cut the foliage back - so you know where they are. Dig the rhizomes up carefully and divide them by pulling apart with your hands. Some, however, may need to be cut with a knife. Healthy rhizomes will be approximately ¾ to 1-inch in diameter, with a good root structure and one to two leaf fans. Older or unhealthy (soft, rotting, or hollow) rhizomes should be discarded. Wash the roots with water and inspect for disease or pests, especially iris borer worms. Trim the leaves to 4 to 6 inches and re-plant as above, with the rhizome on a ridge and roots fanned out. Water newly planted irises well.

Amendments & Fertilizer
The soil type for your area will determine your fertilizer needs superphosphate or a well-balanced fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio of 10:10:10 or 5:5:5 are recommended. Avoid anything high in nitrogen as it encourages soft growth that is susceptible to disease. Provide a light application in early spring and again a month after bloom.

Climate and soil
Irises require at least a half-day (6-8 hours) of direct sunlight. Some afternoon shade is beneficial in extremely hot climate, but in general irises do best in full sun. Irises will thrive in most well drained soil. The ideal pH for irises 6-8 (slightly acidic) but irises are quite tolerant of less-than perfect soil.

Irises generally have low water requirements once established, but can use a little extra if unusually dry just before bloom time. Louisiana, Siberian and Japanese irises need more water than the bearded types.

Although irises can be started from seed, it may be a couple of years before they bloom. Most often, they are propagated by division of the bulbs or rhizomes in late summer or early fall.

Diseases and Pests
Irises can be severely damaged by iris borers and thrips if not controlled. Whiteflies, slugs, snails, aphids and nematodes may also be a nuisance. Deer will seldom harm irises, but May occasionally bite off the blossoms of the crested types, although will usually spit them out and leave them behind. Irises may also be affected by bacterial leaf blight, rhizome rot, leaf spot, rust, and viruses.

Post-harvest technology

Iris should be harvested in the ‘pencil tip’ stage when a lime of coloure projects cut of the sheathing leaves.

Grading is a very important operation because after proper grading only one can get good quality desired flowers based on the stem length, flower appearance, number of flower, stem straightness, colour and freshness of flowers. A good quality stem should be long , straight and healthy, having better coloured flowers without side shoots and free from damage, pests and diseases.

Postharvest life of flowers depends upon efficient packaging and storage. Appropriate packaging of flowers combined with pulsing is helpful to ensure fresh quality of flowers for consumer and also offers potential advantage of extending vase-life.

Cold storage
Pre-cooling in essential for removing field heat from the flowers. This is done either b forced air cooling or hydro cooling to bring down temperature from 20 °C to 10 °C in a relatively short period of time. The maximum temperature that irises can tolerate is 0 °C and the maximum average daily temperature is 20 °C.

All parts of irises may cause severe discomfort if ingested. Gloves should be worn when handling iris plants, rhizomes, or bulbs, as the sap can cause skin irritation.