Nikita Sahu1, AliceTirkey, Amita Ekka,Vivek Kujur,GajalaAmeen

The word aloe is derived from Arabic word “Alloeh” means ‘bitter and shiny substance’. Aloe is native to North Africa but found abundantly throughout the warmer part of the world. Indian aloe (aloe barbadenesis mill.) popularly known as Ghritkumari in Sanskrit, Ghikwar in Hindi and Aloe in English. Aloe vera belongs to subfamily Asphodelaceae of Liliaceae family. Aloe vera is referred as the ‘Miracle Plant’ and ‘Healing Plant’. It grows mainly in the dry regions of Africa, Asia, Europe and America, in India, it is found in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Naduetc.

Although about 360 species of Aloe have been reported, only Aloe vera (Synonyms: Aloe barbadensisMiller) waspopularalmost in all parts of India Aloe vera is the most important among the Aloe species as it has been used medicinally for several thousands of years in folk medicine in many cultures from ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome to China and India.

Apart from Aloe barbadensis, other economically important species of Aloe include A. ferox Mill.,A. Africana Mill., A. perryiBack., A.arborescenceMill., A. zeylanicum, etc. The different species of Aloe contain different medicinal property.

The area under cultivation at Chattisgarh in the year 2022 -23 was 0.249 thousand hactare and production 2.405 thousand tonnes, which is highest among all medicinal plant under cultivation. In the year 2021-22 India recorded 659-thousand-hectare area,779 MT production and 1.18 MT/hectare under medicinal and aromatic plants.

  • Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis)
  • Aloe ferox
  • Aloe perryi
  • Aloe arborescens
  • Aloe Africana
  • Aloe chinensis
  • Aloe marlothii
  • Aloe Saponaria

Source - Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 10(11), pp 133-145.

Medicinal Uses

1. Healing wounds: Wound healing may be one of the biggest benefits of aloe vera. It can speed up the wound healing process by improving the proliferation of fibroblasts.

2. Effects on ulcers: Aloe vera can be used successfully in the general treatment of skin ulcers including mouth ulcers herpes simplex and psoriasis. Also, this plant was found to protect against the formation of gastric ulcers.

3. Antidiabetic activities: By consuming aloe vera, the blood sugar level of a patient suffering from type 2 diabetes can be balanced to some extent. Actually, the anti-diabetic properties of aloe vera can be effective in diabetes.

4. Laxative effects: Anthraquinones present in Aloe vera latex are a potent laxative, increasing intestinal peristalsis.

5. Antibacterial properties: Aloe vera inhibits the growth of some microorganisms like Str. pyogenes, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella sp., especially against Gram-positive bacteria causing food poisoning or diseases in humans and animals.

6. Anticancer Properties: Aloe vera emodin, an anthraquinone, has the ability to suppress or inhibit the growth of malignant cancer cells making it to have anti-neoplastic properties.

7. Aloe vera for immunity: According to the National Cancer Institute, aloe vera can also help in keeping a person healthy by acting as an immune booster. Immunity activity is enhanced by Aloe polysaccharides.

8. Aloe vera for arthritis: Aloe has been used to help with arthritis and joint related problems.





Amino acids

Provides 20 of the 22 required amino acids and 7 of the 8 essential ones

Basic building blocks of proteins in the body and muscle tissues


Provides Aloe emodin, Aloetic acid, alovin, anthracine

Analgesic, antibacterial


Anthranol, barbaloin, chrysophanic acid, smodin, ethereal oil, ester of cinnamonic acid, isobarbaloin, resistannol

Antifungal and antiviral activity but toxic at high concentrations


Auxins and gibberellins

Wound healing and anti-inflammatory


Calcium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc

Essential for good health

Salicyclic acid

Aspirin like compounds




Cleansing and antiseptic


Cholesterol, campesterol, lupeol, sistosterol

Anti-inflammatory agents, lupeol has Antiseptic and analgesic properties


Monosaccharides: Glucose and Fructose.

Polysaccharides: Glucomannans/polymannose

Anti-viral, immune modulating activity of acemannan


A, B, C, E, choline, B12, folic acid

Antioxidant (A, C, E), neutralises free radicals

Source -Therapeutic and Medicinal Uses of Aloe vera: A Review

Cultivation Technology of Aloe-vera:

Land preparation: Depending upon soil type and agro-climatic conditions, 1-2 ploughing followed by levelling are recommended. The field should be divided into suitable plot sizes (10-15mx3m) considering the slope & available source of irrigation.

Propagation: Aloe-vera is generally propagated through roots suckers called as pups. Nearly 15000 pups are required for plantation of 1 hectare of land. The healthy suckers with root having 4-5 leaves are separated from mother plant and directly planted in the field. Both plant to plant and row to row spacing is to be maintained 60cm X 60cm. Suckers should be planted in July-August in order to get better field survival and subsequent growth of the plants.


IC111271, IC111269, IC111280, IC111273, IC111279- Released by National Botanical and Plant Genetic Resource, ICAR, Delhi. It has high aloin content.

IC111267, IC1112666, IC111280, IC111272 AND IC111277- Released by National Botanical and Plant Genetic Resource, ICAR, Delhi. It contains high gel content.

AL-1- Released by Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow.

Soil type: It can be grown in variety of soils but the most ideal soils for its cultivation is sandy loam that is slightly alkaline with a PH up to 8.5.

Irrigation: Aloe crop does not require much water, however, soon after planting the field should be irrigated.

Manure and Fertilizer: In India, Aloe-vera is raised as organic crop and only Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is applied (12-15 tonnes/ha). In standing crop, cow-dung is applied (5-10 tonnes/ha).

Harvesting/Yield: An aloe plantation start yielding just after 6-8 month of transplanting under proper management condition. Leaving the fresh and young leaves from the top, older outer leaves are generally harvested. In India, the average yield for organically grown Aloe is about 12 tonnes/ha (on fresh weight basis).

Economics: Aloe vera plant starts giving regular income after one year of transplanting. That’s why aloe vera farming can be a boon even for wasteland. In commercial cultivation of Aloe vera, the cost of planting 10-11 thousand plants per acre comes to 18-20 thousand rupees. From this, 20-25 tonnes of aloe vera is obtained in a year, which is sold at the rate of Rs 25-20 thousand per tonne. A net profit of about Rs 8,000-12,000 per hectare. In addition, one can earn by selling suckers as a planting material from second year onwards.