DEEPIKA SAHU, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry
ANJALI PATEL, Department of Agronomy 
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur, (C.G.)

Organic nanoparticles (NPs) are natural or synthetic organic molecules. Nature provides a wide range of examples of organic NPs such as protein aggregates, lipid bodies, milk emulsions, or more complex organized structures such as viruses.
  • One of the most important features of organic NPs is that they offer relatively simple routes for the encapsulation of materials.
  • This together with the fact that the molecules used for the fabrication of the organic NPs can be biodegradable makes organic NPs the most appealing systems for drug delivery and biomedical applications.
  • Most of the organic NPs are formed by several organic molecules which are driven together by self-organization or chemical binding.

Synthesis of Organic NPs
Organic NPs can be fabricated both by “top-down” and by “bottom-up” approaches.

In the “top-down” techniques, the most common is the mechanical milling, although, recently, other more complicated techniques involving microfluidics and lithography have been used to produce organic nanomaterials.
  • This approach allows the fabrication of NPs of any shape and the encapsulation of biomaterials such as DNA and proteins.

In the “bottom-up” techniques, organic NPs are typically produced via precipitation and condensation methods, using synthetic methodologies or applying self-assembly principles.
  • Liposomes, vesicles and micelles are NPs formed by supramolecular selfassembly of surfactants and lipids.