Nisha Jangre, Muktilata Tirkey and Vandana Yadav

Department of Vegetable Science
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya,Raipur (C.G.)

Spine gourd is a wild edible plant which is mostly confined to undisturbed forest areas. This not only satisfies hunger of the tribal people but also provide a good source of nutrition. Momordica dioica is a perennial climber plant commonly known as, kantola, Jungli karela or small bitter-gourd. It is locally known as “Kakora” and is relatively small oval to ovoid in shape. The plant is perennial, dioceous, climbing creeper with tuberous roots belonging to family Cucurbitaceae. Fruit is shortly beaked, densely covered with soft spines, green and yellow at maturity.

Climate and Soil
Spine gourd thrives well under warm and humid climate. This crop requires good sunshine for better growth and yield. Kakora can be grown successfully in areas where temperature ranges from 27-32 degree Celsius with annual rainfall of 1500-2500 mm. It can cultivate under wide range of soil. But sandy loam to clay soils with rich in organic matter and well drainage facilities is good for cultivation. Optimum soil pH for the crop is 6.0-7.0. Acidic soil is not suitable for cultivation.

Field Preparation
Land should be leveled and well prepared by tractor. The field is prepared by digging pit. The pit is filled with 5 kg FYM, 150g SSP and 50g MOP and 3g Furad on to preventer mites. Two time top dressing of Urea @ 80g near theroot zone promote plant growth and development.

Propagation in spine gourd can be done through seeds or tubers.

Seed Rate
An average seed rate in spine gourd cultivation is about 8-10 kg Seeds with good germination percentage of 70-80% is required for one hectare. If planted by vegetative methods 3000-5000tubers/ha.

Indira Kankoda-1,Ambika-12-1, Ambika-12-2, Ambika-12-3. These improved varieties are resistant to all major pest and insects.

Time of Sowing
The best time for seed sowing is June –July. The plant obtained in ratio of 1:1 male to female ratio if planted by seed. Therefore it is not commercially cultivated by seed. For obtaining higher yield kankora can also be propagated by vegetative parts like tubers.

Sowing Methods
Sufficient plant population should be maintained to obtained higher yield. Sow 2-3 seeds in the prepared beds @2 cm depth, ridge to ridge distance should be about 2 meter and plant to plant distance should be 70to 80 cm. The healthy cuttings are planted in pit prepared during field preparation. The pit is dug in a spacing of 2x2m.In 4x4 m plot, total 9 pit is dug out, in which male plant is planted in centre pit whereas in remaining 8 pits female plants are planted.

Manure and Fertilizer
Sufficient quantity of manure and fertilizers are required for economical yield. The dose of fertilizer depends upon soil, climate and system of cultivation. Well rotten FYM @ 200-250q/ha is applied at the time of final land preparation. In addition to this add urea 65 kg, SSP 375 kg, and MOP 67 kg per ha. Full dose of P and K and half dose of N is applied before sowing and remaining half dose of N before flowering.

Just after sowing of seed or placement of cuttings irrigation is essential and it should continue for 4-5days. Irrigation is not required during rainy season. But if there is long gap between two rainy days then irrigation should be given in weekly interval. Adequate drainage facilities should be provided in the field because due to heavy rains seeds or tubers may start rotting. 2-3 times weeding and hoeing is required.

To obtained higher yield proper stacking of plant is essential. Kakora as a crop is climbing in nature, provision of supporting structure like bamboo, or dry twigs encourage proper vegetative growth and thereby contribute to good yield of quality fruits. Kakora is perennial crop so different system of training viz. single stake system, bower and kniff in system are followed as per availability of training materials.

Plant protection
Kakora is very less infected by pests. But Fruit flies and nematodes causes major losses. Control: Use insect traps and baits to catch flies and destroy them. Spray Imidacloprid or quinalphos 25 EC 2-3 ml/lit water.

Harvesting and Yield
Fruits are ready for harvest within 75-80 days in first year of sowing and 35-40 days from second year. Fruits should be harvested at tender and mature green stage. Alternate days are recommended for harvesting to avoid over matured. Under optimum crop management condition fruit yield is 75-100q/ha.